In the final section, we shed light on the evolution of platform business model in mobile industry. KakaoTalk providers a free software application for mobile devices that allows customers to send and receive messages and voice calls for free. Users can not only send texts, photos, videos, and contact information, but can also enjoy voice calls, all on a one-to-one basis or in groups.
Recently, some scholars have devoted a growing amount of attention to business model innovation Teece, ; Najmaei, A business model articulates the logic and provides data and other evidence that demonstrates how a business creates and delivers value to customers Teece, No consensus exists yet regarding the definition, structure, and evolution of a business model.
The manner in which firms create and capture value is a popular research topic. Prior studies regarding business models fail to reach a consensus to define their components. The interest in business models is relatively recent, and Boudreau noted that early work to identify business models focused on capturing the revenue stream of web-based firms. No matter the sector, there are criteria that enable one to determine whether or not one has designed a good business model. Business models yield value propositions that are compelling to customers, achieve advantages in terms of the cost risk structures, and enable significant value to be captured by the business.
The business model concerns the logic of how profit is generated by the firm. Steward and Zhao assert that the business model is a statement of how a firm will both make money and sustain its profit stream over time. Slywotsky noted that a business model consists of the totality of how a company selects its customers, defines and differentiates its offerings, defines the task it will perform itself and those it will outsource, configures its resources, goes to market, creates utility for customers, and captures profits.
A business model is related to a number of other managerial concepts, and it captures the key components of a business plan. The business model components consist of price, product, distribution, organizational characteristics, and market strategy Horowitz, ; Timmers, ; Dubosson-Torbay et al. What do we know about a business model? Prior studies are referenced in this study to define the business model of a company as a simplified representation of its business logic. Namely, a novel business model is crucial to maximize profits.
It is called multi side platform business model like KaKaoTalk. Multi-side platform is widely known for customers, and plays a role to link or broke between the interdependent groups, based on web and smartphones. AirBnB is the firm, operating to link between groups that want to find houses and groups that want to lend a house. Thus, the both supply side and demand side is the key composing the market. Amazon, Facebook, E-bay, twitter, Google and apple is the successful firms by using the multi-side Platform business model. The role of a platform is to mediate between various stakeholder constituencies by coordinating interactions between two or more members from distinct groups of stakeholders Evans, ; Rochet and Tirole, ; Jullien, ; Cortade, Jacobides et al.
Also, a platform in the ICT sector can be referred to as a hardware configuration, an operating system, a software framework or any other common entity shared by users Ballon et al. Gawer and Henderson state that we can conceptualize a platform as a technological system where a product or service is one component that is functionally interdependent with other components. Thus, a platform provides a number of benefits to its users. As a result, user demand is for the overall system, and hence, there is no demand for individual components when they are isolated from the overall system Gawer and Henderson, From the literature, we can induce that a platform is the set of components and rules that are commonly employed when users conduct transactions.
Such components include hardware, software, and service modules, along with an architecture that specifies how they fit together. In such a market, the value obtained by one customer group increases as the number of users from the other customer group increases Evans, This phenomenon is described as a network externality, for which consumption by one side of the market does not depend on the same group, but on the opposite side of the market Roson, A buyer takes into account the number of potential sellers on the platform when making a purchase.
Evans pointed out that an intermediary is necessary to internalize the externalities created by one group for the other group. In economics, this kind of behavior between two markets is regarded as an indirect network effect of two-sided markets. A successful platform coordinates the interaction between individuals belonging to various stakeholder groups, and it is also able to internalize the externalities created by one group for the other group. A platform business model, thus, needs to get various stakeholder groups on board and needs to balance the interests of these groups by focusing on balancing the openness and lock-in of customers rather than on profit maximization in a single market Cortade, ; Ballon et al.
Technology platforms are two-sided or multi-sided markets that bring together various types of participants Rochet and Tirole, Unless a business serves two or more distinct types of customers who depend on each other in some form, it is not platform. When various types of customers interact with each other, then it is called a platform.
The goal of this study is to find successful the social platforms by analyzing KakaoTalk as a representative example as well as to propose the evolution of the platform business model. KakaoTalk has created the dominant platform business market in Korea, and it has tremendous influence on entrepreneurs within the app ecosystem.
Fieldwork and field interviews were carried out to obtain raw data. When the targets were selected for the intensive interviews, a purposive sampling question was adopted in order to identify interviewees, including their individual characteristics. This method is particularly effective and appropriate for this type of qualitative research Punch In particular, the information released by newspaper was thoroughly examined before having an interview and academic journals and periodicals were also analyzed. Due to firm policy, which has a strong emphasis on internal security, it takes time to meet experts related to business model development, including the CIO of KakaoTalk, by proving that the purpose for such contact involves academic research aims.
To gain further insight into the academic process for formulating and analyzing business models, the author used a standard interview format with the CIOs or founders of such companies. Most of the interviews were recorded with the consent of the interviewees, including those interviews conducted over the phone. As social platform provider, KaKaoTalk offers a wide range of content and services including business marketing, commerce, games, digital content, fashion and music. KaKaoTalk has more than million registered users including the across the world. Since , KaKaoTalk, offering a mobile social platform has rapidly grown.
Kakao Inc. This strategy was effective, and it greatly affected the domestic mobile game market, for which the market size increased from 20 billion to billion won as a result of Kakao Game. Since then, Kakao has continued to expand its platform by providing a mobile shopping mall called Kakao Style and has also provided further social SNS features through Kakao Story. A considerable number of Kakao games offer in-app purchases, which means that they make profits by selling useful items in the process of playing the game, while the games are offered for free.
KakaoTalk can take the lead the mobile game industry by collaborating with game developers to provide Kakao Game, while launching Plus Friend, a mobile marketing channel for firms and content providers. The Item Store market, which sells emoticons, is also important success ingredients, representative win-win business model that has contributed to the revival of the digital content market, as profits are shared fairly with the content creators.
In additions, KakaoTalk brings about new paradigms to the mobile contents market via KakaoPage, a new form of mobile digital contents platform, while KakaoMusic has established a distinctive social music service where users can share their favorite music with friends. Kakao also already have a positioning as a global mobile platform, Kakao continues to secure its position as an important benchmark and industry pioneer in the global community. KakaoTalk has been recognized worldwide by influential organizations, winning the Red Herring Asia Top Award in , and nominated as finalist for Global Mobile Awards most Innovative App in Is it specifically connecting brick and mortar stores to mobile shoppers?
Could be my cluelessness…. When building the platform, the first consideration is to make a decision to provide some value in some industry. The most successful platforms have a common ground in that they appear when there are social changes or changes in lifestyle. When we want to create a successful platform, it is very important to have an understanding of large flows of social change since there is likely to be no existing platform or there will be few successful cases when a new lifestyle appears. Even today, many industries have entered a mature stage, so there are new changes happening somewhere else, and opportunities are created when there are changes Hirano and Andrei, Upon the iPhone was launched in Korea at the end of , Kim Bumsoo, CEO of KakaoTalk predicted a mobile revolution and noted that communication was a key value of the mobile space.
A phone is for calling. What is a killer app on your phone? Either calling or sending a text message. Then we did not have to hesitate. A communication tool is the killer app, otherwise a search tool is the most important tool for a personal computer. The essence of a phone is communication.
In brief, he realized that the attribute of a mobile phone could be delivered through the KakaoTalk service. He replaced an existing tool within phones that was being offered as a paid service and replaced it with KakaoTalk, which was a free service delivered over the Internet. This also improved communications. Despite having launched one year in advance, Google Hangouts then called Google Talk had a weakness in that user registration was incovenient. Google Talk users were required to directly register as members and other members also had to register for the service. So people felt uncomfortable with this demand, and so Google Talk failed to gain many users.
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KakaoTalk took advantage of this weakness in the process required by Google Talk by implementing a convenient automatic registration rule for users. If you download the KakaoTalk application, you can easily use free mobile instant messaging service without registration procedures, such as those required by Google Talk. After that, it dominated the market by advancing in the market and developing more quickly that its rivals, Mypeople and Line.
As a result, KakaoTalk created a new platform for mobile instant messaging that replace the paid messaging services provided by mobile carriers Chang and Oh, Finally, a platform business produces a variety of exchanges where a seller and a buyer meet. In an early stage, KaKao try to find how to increase the satisfaction. Smartphone users desired to have a new style of communication when KakaoTalk came into the market. KakaoTalk is helpful for having conversations and to build a network, so it is possible to have one-to-many communication and to review past conversations.
Furthermore, we can use emoticons to express various feelings. KakaoTalk is a fresh platform where users can check whether a message has been read, and in addition, photos and profile names can be used within KakaoTalk, and many users are attracted to the platform due to these features. Social networking service that provides chat and voice services voice talk, group call between groups and Social networking service to share photos and private lives in a group chat with a number of group members.
Service to help users decorate and add character to the home screen of their smartphone.
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Location-based social networking service to share the popular restaurants and attractions between KakaoTalk friends. Mobile marketplace to buy, sell, and share music, videos, e-books and other digital content. Social network service to see the hottest fashion in one place and to share it with friends. Service to get together and to share photos, videos, music, etc. Service to send links from external apps or mobile webpages to KakaoTalk and KakaoStory.
To be successful, a platform provides the right content to its users, and a platform can be more competitive by bundling services in order to further engage consumers with killer content. As the mobile industry began to grow, Iwilab, the prior name of Kakao, simultaneously released KakaoSuda, KakaoAgit, and KakaoTalk as mobile services, but they all initially failed.
The value that KakaoTalk provided to customers as a free messenger service then became clear, and it provided the momentum needed to secure customers. At the beginning, the free messenger service was the killer content provided by KakaoTalk. After , Kakao also began to offer the Gifticon and Choco services.
Since then, the company has bundled other services, such as an emoticon service and KakaoStyle, and has expanded its business activities to games, fashion, business marketing, digital content, etc. KakaoGame then became the killer service provided by KakaoTalk that provided further rapid growth. KakaoGame basically provides a social network for games, which is a new type of service for games to blend gaming and social network service SNS features to build online connections, such as that also provided by Facebook.
Existing games use network technologies to enhance the enjoyment provided by the game itself. However, social network games use the game to provide a further sense of closeness between the users. Online games can possibly invite bad behavior, such as when players use swear words. However, users feel intimacy with each other in KakaoGame, and this closeness can minimize the negative behaviors in online games.
KakaoTalk has remained the market leader by providing killer content that combines both game and SNS features. The pricing strategy depends on the relationship of the dynamics between the platform provider and the participants, the attachment of the group to the platform, and the competitive environment. Therefore, a platform provide must adjust prices flexibly according to a variety of conditions and must also carefully observe market trends and the responses of participants.
As of August , the traffic handled by the company included 31 billion message transfers in a day. This service has kept to its original function as a messaging service Han, On the other hand, users do not pay to use the messenger service provided by KakaoTalk. Total sale is 8, billion won in When it comes to the number of users, KaKaoTalk is million, Although KakaoTalk tried to make profits from the Gifticon and emoticon services, it did not achieve the expected results.
However, KakaoGame, which launched in July , has become a huge game platform and has changed the dynamics of the domestic gaming market.
KakaoTalk - the free, fast and fun messenger!
The revenue strategy for Kakao is to embody various forms of content as a distribution platform, not just for mobile advertising Han, Those who are related to KakaoTalk, such as external developers, internal staff, and users, described Open Innovation as a common strategy for success. KakaoTalk itself does not create content, such as Facebook and Twitter. External participants create a variety of content, and KakaoTalk is only responsible to opearte the platform.
Therefore, KakaoTalk can expend minimal manpower for development, and it has a competitive edge by concentrating on its core activities. In a mobile ecosystem, there are more disadvantages than advantages to monopolize content with internal staff, such as how Naver operates. On the other hand, it has a great advantage in that it provides both speed and quality for parties to supply content from outside the platform.
This study has determined the success factors that are relevant for a business platform by conducting research and interviews with many stakeholders. These success factors suggest a new business platform model. Figure 6 depicts the business model that corresponds to such an eco-system. When a new business platform starts, it is important to set up a domain and the target groups, and then a proper pricing strategy is essential. To operate efficiently, platform business enterprises should establish an interactive system that allows activity with different platform elements.
Killer content are a precondition for platform growth. KakaoTalk can be able to grow rapidly as a result of the quick use of unique platform strategies. This study performed a case analysis of KakaoTalk to find the determinants of successful social platforms as well as to determine how to create a value proposition and how organizations in the platform can cooperate.
The goal of the research is to suggest a platform business model that is useful for building eco-systems. In order to fulfill these research aims, this study utilized direct data related to KakaoTalk as well as discussions and interviews with the CIO at KakaoTalk and other stakeholders. These findings reveal that in the first stage, KakaoTalk created a mobile instant messenger within a new domain. In the second stage, existing mobile users who were searching for new means of communication were obtained. In the third stage, KakaoTalk grew rapidly by providing a free service and further expanded its business to the marketing and social domains.
In the fourth stage, KakaoTalk decided to continue to offer free text transmissions as a killer service, and the company expanded its range of services to games, fashion, business marketing, digital contents, etc. In the fifth stage, KakaoTalk redefined its business not only as a simple mobile messaging service but also as a distribution platform and began to provide a wider variety of content.
In the sixth stage, KakaoTalk underwent three evolutionary stages including an early stage as an SNS Service, growth stage as an SNS company, and evolutionary stage as a social media platform. In the seventh stage, KakaoTalk actively engaged in open innovation. KakaoTalk is the mobile instant messenger that the vast majority of Korean smartphone users constantly use, and Kakao developed this app as its core platform and has provided a variety of follow-up platforms, such as mobile commerce, mobile advertisement, mobile games, etc. Continuous user interaction is necessary for the company to continue to be successful as a platform business.
In other words, an open innovation strategy is also required to ensure business model evolution. Finally, the findings of the case analysis suggest that the PSE curve is a unique pattern of the success of a social platform business model.
The PSE curve is comprised of three faces: a preparation face that establishes a platform to set the target group; a spread face where killer contents are provided in the early stage of the platform, such as KakaoGame, a low pricing strategy, and reinforcement of the platform rules; and an evolution face where the platform continues to evolve. In addition, we have created a business model for a platform provider to build an eco-system by using the PSE curve to achieve success.
In this paper, we find the successful path of platform business model, and suggest the eco-model evolution. What KaKao can evolve from simple mobile message to SNS platform in the first in the world is to find new value for customers using killer contents instead of seeking a business. Through this study, we find PSE preparation, spread, evolution curve. The results of this study are subject to some limitations, but they also offer significant findings in that they provide the basics of an academic analysis of the factors that lead to the success of a platform.
Further study is planned to address the merger of mobile messengers and this research can contribute to the mobile platform strategies in the future. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Platform business Eco-model evolution: case study on KakaoTalk in Korea. Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a new window or tab Share on Twitter - opens in a new window or tab Share on Pinterest - opens in a new window or tab.
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